Main Article Content
The novel coronavirus pandemic is posing significant challenges to healthcare workers (HCWs) in adjusting to redeployed clinical settings and enhanced risk to their own health. Studies suggest a variable impact of COVID-19 based on factors such as age, gender, comorbidities and ethnicity. Workplace measures such as personal protective equipment (PPE), social distancing (SD) and avoidance of exposure for the vulnerable, mitigate this risk. This online questionnaire-based study explored the impact of gender and religion in addition to workplace measures associated with risk of COVID-19 in hospital doctors in acute and mental health institutions in the UK.
The survey had 1206 responses, majority (94%) from BAME backgrounds. A quarter of the respondents had either confirmed or suspected COVID-19, a similar proportion reported inadequate PPE and 2/3 could not comply with SD. One third reported being reprimanded in relation to PPE or avoidance of risk. In univariate analysis, age over 50 years, being female, Muslim and inability to avoid exposure in the workplace was associated with risk of COVID-19. On multivariate analysis, inadequate PPE remained an independent predictor with a twofold (OR 2.29, (CI - 1.22-4.33), p=0.01) risk of COVID-19.
This study demonstrates that PPE, SD and workplace measures to mitigate risk remain important for reducing the risk of COVID-19 in hospital doctors. Gender and religion did not appear to be independent determinants. It is imperative that employers consolidate risk reduction measures and foster a culture of safety to encourage employees to voice any safety concerns.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
2. Hunter E Price DA Murphy E et al. First experience of COVID-19 screening of health-care workers in England. Lancet. 2020; 395: e77-e78
3. Olgueira MD, Munoz-Ruiperez C, Alonso-Lopez MA, Delgado R. SARS-CoV-2 infection in health care workers in a large public hospital in Madrid, Spain, during March 2020. April 27, 2020 (https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.07.20055723v2. opens in new tab). Preprint
4. Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre. ICNARC report on COVID-19 in critical care 24 April 2020.https://www.icnarc.org/OurAudit/Audits/Cmp/Reports accessed 25th April 2020
5. Platt L, Warwick R. Are some ethnic groups more vulnerable to COVID-19 than others? Institute for Fiscal Studies, Nuffield Foundation. 2020
6. Office for National Statistics. Coronavirus (COVID-19) related deaths by ethnic group, England and Wales: 2 March 2020 to 10 April 2020. 2020. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/articles/cor onavirusrelateddeathsbyethnicgroupenglandandwales/2march2020to10april2020.
7. The Open SAFELY Collaborative, Williamson E, Walker A et al. Open SAFELY: factors associated with COVID-19-related hospital death in the linked electronic health records of 17 million adult NHS patients. medRxiv preprint posted 7 May 2020
8. Yang, J., et al., Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in coronavirus disease 2019 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis, 2020. 94: p. 91-95
9. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/covid -19-review-of-disparities-in-risks-and-outcomes
10. Exclusive: deaths of NHS staff from COVID-19 analysed. 2020. Health Services Journal. https://www.hsj.co.uk/exclusive-deaths-of-nhs-staff-from-covid-19-analysed/7027471.
11. https://www.cebm.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/BAME-COVID-Rapid-Data-Evidence-Review-Final-Hidden-in-Plain-Sight-compressed.pdf12. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel corona virus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 2020; 395 (10223):507-13
13. Remuzzi A, Ramuzzi G. COVID-19 and Italy: what next? Lancet 2020 S 0140-6736 (20) 306277-9
14. CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Characteristics of health care personnel with COVID-19 — United States, February 12–April 9, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:477-481
15. https://www.rki.de/DE/Content/InfAZ/N/ Neuartiges_Coronavirus/Situationsberichte/2020-04-21-en.pdf
16. Channappanavar R, Fett C, Mack M et al. Sex- based differences in susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. J Immunol 2017;198(10): 4046-53
17. Matsyama R, Nishiura H, Kutsuna S et al. Clinical determinants of security of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): a systematic review and meta-analysis: BMC Public Health 2016 ; 16(1):1203
19. NHS Staff Survey 2019. National Results debriefing. Feb2020. http://www.nhsstaffsurveyresults.com/wp-
22. Chakravorty, I., Daga, S., Dave, S et al; An Online Survey of Healthcare Professionals in the COVID-19 Pandemic in the UK: : Perceptions of Risk Factors. Sushruta J of Health Policy & Opin 2020, 13(2) https://doi.org/10.38192/13.2.9
23. Daga, S., Chakravorty , I. ., Bamrah, J.et al Self-reported Occupational Risk for COVID-19 in Hospital Doctors from Black Asian & Minority Ethnic Communities in UK. The Physician,2020; 6(1) https://doi.org/10.38192/22.214.171.124
24. Chu DK Akl EA Duda S et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2020; (published online June 1.) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9
27.“Is It Safe for Me to Go to Work?” Risk Stratification for Workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Marc R. Larochelle NEJM May 26, 2020